Saturday, May 16, 2020
Dated circa 1515, The Coronation of the Virgin is the earliest known altarpiece by BartholomÃ ¤us Bruyn the Elder German, 1493Ã¢â¬â1555, who was a contemporary of Lucas Cranach and Hans Holbein, and the foremost painter in Cologne in the sixteenth century. It is one of the few German Renaissance altarpieces that still have the side panels intact. Although it has a later frame, Linda Muehlig, associate director of curatorial affairs at Smith College Museum of Art, affirms that, Ã¢â¬Å"a technical analysis of the wood of the side panels showed that they were cut from the same tree as the center panel, refuting the theory that they might have been added later.Ã¢â¬ (SCMA) In this work, Bruyn unifies late Gothic tradition with northern Renaissance elements, creating a unique style. The work is a three-panel altarpiece, painted in oil on oak wood panels. The large central panel of the triptych shows the Virgin Mary being crowned by the whole Christian Trinity, known as the One who is Three. Christ wears a red robe and holds a scepter. His calmness suggests that the pain of the body does not affect him on the spirit. According to the bible, Ã¢â¬Å"This shining did not conceal but rather revealed the more those wounds upon His hands and feet which cruel men had inflicted and His brow still bore the marks of barbed thornsÃ¢â¬ (Revelation 12:1). His face is a younger version of God the Father, who holds a globus cruciger, and dresses a heavy crown along with a richly brocaded and jeweled robe like a king.Show MoreRelatedFra AngelicoÃ¢â¬â¢s Coronation of the Virgin: Art Use during the Renaissance: 1344 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessetting the stage for distinct and innovative art styles and ideas. Fra AngelicoÃ¢â¬â¢s Coronation of the Virgin (Figure 1) and other for ms of religious artwork from Renaissance Europe, although sometimes varying in interpretation, were created in order to bring social divisions together under the protection of the ecclesiastical hierarchy. Commissioned for the Church of San Domenico in Fiesole, the Coronation of the Virgin was both visually beautiful, and functional as a church altarpiece. The DominicansRead MoreMaster Was An Italian Artist858 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages4 bound volume that describes the sacred subjects. It also includes the miniatures dating from 12th to 16th century from France, Germany, Austria, Bohemia, the Netherlands, Spain, and Italy. Description: Olivetan Master, Heaven on Earth (Coronation of the Virgin with Trinity and Saints), 1440, miniature on vellum, 15.7 x 14.3 cm, Rosenwald Collection, National Gallery of Art. In this piece of art it actually showing about the Christian art. How Christ is accompanied by God the Father and the HolyRead MoreA Doorway From Moutiers Saint Jean1194 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesJohn of RÃ ©Ã ´me in the fifth century in dedication to the Virgin Mary. Ã¢â¬Å"His sanctity drew others to him and enabled him to found a religious community dedicated to the Virgin. Such monasteries grew up in Burgundy and elsewhere from the cells of disciples clustered around the hermitage of a holy person.Ã¢â¬ 1 It was the monasteries dedication to the Virgin that inspired the biblical scene on the arch of the doorway to be the Coronation of the Virgin. In the scene, Christ and Mary are enthroned in the KingdomRead MoreFashion Essay : Queen Elizabeth I1013 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswould be criticized as weak and underserving. Catherine L. Howey contends: Ã¢â¬Å"Elizabeth had to present herself as a chaste, virginal woman to prove that she was morally worthy of holding the traditionally mas culine office of monarch.Ã¢â¬ (Dressing as a Virgin Queen pg. 201) Due to a thriving economy, English fashion rapidly transformed as residents longed for finer, imported clothing; thus, Queen Elizabeth I quenched the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s thirst for extravagant clothes by setting standards of dress and extendingRead MorePortraiture Depictions Of Queen Elizabeth I1578 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescommunicate to the people of the country, she only showcased the way people should only view her. The portraits show her identity, historical events, displays concrete arguments about her identity as a virgin, royalty, power, and purity. The first portrait of Elizabeth I as Queen is the Coronation Portrait, this portrait captured her beginning moments as Queen. This portrait also dictates how legendary she would and will become. In this painting, Elizabeth I has her hair down to symbolize her virginityRead MoreNicolas Rolins Commission of a Paiting818 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesthis his way of exhibiting his wealth and power (Harbison 2012)? It is believed that this painting was commissioned for both reasons. According to Gaston Bord, this painting was commissioned for two main reasons. He wanted to show his devotion to the Virgin Mary while simultaneously connecting him to his patronage of his church. Van Eyck was known for his acute sense of observation and the quasi-scientific precision of his paintings. His works reflected an astonishing realism that some called the perfectionRead MoreElizabethan Age Nationalism Essay1512 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageslast word. She was their King, this virgin Queen that defined her life with the love of no man but a country of loyal subjects. England prospered in culture and religion as well as establishing itself as a world power, all during Elizabethan times. During the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, nationalism soared due to the queenÃ¢â¬â¢s deep devotion to England which she portrayed through these four titles, or Ã¢â¬Å"facesÃ¢â¬ she adopted over the years; the Protestant Queen, the Virgin Queen, the Pirate Queen, and finallyRead MoreEssay on Innovation During the Middle Ages 2066 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesfrom France, a major center for ivory carvings during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries . Smaller devotional works gained popularity duri ng the Gothic era. The Diptych (fig 2) considered in this comparison consists of two panels: the Coronation of the Virgin and the Last Judgment. Both were popular scenes in the Gothic era . There are two subsequent scenes in the lower registers of each panel. The figures in the low relief are smaller in scale and relate to the scenes taking place in the heavenlyRead MoreEarly Italian Renaissance Art: Florentine vs. Sienese Art2288 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesand Byzantine conventions, such as a shimmering gold background, but infused into that tradition his own new stylistic techniques. Vasari includes among Duccios many accomplishments his work in the Duomo of Siena. He especially acclaims Duccios Coronation of Our Lady, which was previously located on the altar of the Duomo. Giotto rose to fame as the principle figure of the Florentine tradition, and his technical skill in the field of painting was recognized and praised by his contemporaries. GiottoRead MoreThe Cathedral Of Notre Dame888 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The Cathedral of Notre-Dame in Reims, northeast of Paris near Champagne was the coronation church of the kings of France and was an educational and cultural center. Also built of limestone, the architecture of the Reims Cathedral features Gothic style. It symbolizes an Early Gothic, Radiant Gothic and Flamboyant Gothic. The Reims Cathedral depicts a classic harmonic facade containing four levels. Its interior is defined by its towering heights and narrow proportions, and elaborate sculptural works
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Tradition, defined as the handing down of information, beliefs, and customs by word of mouth or by example from one generation to another without written instruction. (Tradition) Tradition is a core trait of humanity, from the time before recorded history to present, humanity has followed traditions or customs that have been passed down from generation to generation. More often than not communities all over the world blindly follow these practices with little regard to who started them or why they were enacted in the first place. The community, in the short story The Lottery by Shirley Jackson, is no different. The community members follow the tradition of the lottery without any consideration to its ramifications.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In addition to the fear of change, Shirley Jackson also illustrates the blindness of the townsfolk to the dangers and complete irrationality of the lottery. The winner of the town lottery gets killed for no lucid reason what so ever. This stra nge ceremony proposes how dangerous traditions can be when communities follow them blindly. Jackson paints a picture of a small, peaceful and quiet town in the beginning of the story. Each villager is beginning preparations for a seemingly harmless town lottery; however, by the end of the story the reality of the lottery takes a complete 360 turn and culminates with the murder of an innocent town member. Blind approval of the lottery has permitted ceremonious murders to become a part of the towns heritage, for the sole reason of keeping tradition. Guess we better get started, get this over with, sos we can go back to work. (Jackson 840) These typical citizens, who have just taken time out of their day effortlessly kill someone, return to work without any remorse or regret when they are told to do so. No one stops to question it, and therefore the senseless loss of life continues. Jackson uses the lottery as a severe example of what can happen when traditions and rituals are not ques tioned by future generations. Tradition is central to small towns; it provides a way for families and generations to connect with each other. However, when blindly followed these
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
A world crisis can make or break a country Essay A world crisis can make or break a country: The topic that jumped outat me and screamed, write about me! was that war can make or break acountry. This statement explains how so many different countries have comeinto there own, and have established themselves as world powers. -=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-Category:HistoryPaper Title:A world crisis can make or break a countryText:The topic that jumped out at me and screamed, write about me! was thatwar can make or break a country. This statement explains how so manydifferent countries have come into there own, and have established themselves asworld powers. Europes global expansion created the setting within which allother societies have been compelled to make there way into the modern world. Russians, Latin Americans, Arabs, Chinese, and other peoples found themselvesfaced with the fact of western European dominance in one form or another. Noneof them could avoid dealing with it in one form or another. One such an examplewas the power struggle between Europe and the United States before and afterWWII. World War II was a period of self-definition for the two countries. Europehad become the leading force of exploration between 1492 and 1945 until afterWorld War II when the US replaced them. After the war the Soviet Union hadcollapsed and without their threat, the U.S. was attempting to stop the spreadof communism to better the world as a whole. Before the Second World War Europe was a booming economic epicenter, withtrade routes to virtually everywhere. Their people had witnessed the fall of theRoman republic, the crusades, and the enlightenment of the renaissance, but astime waned on European people found themselves faced with the threat of a warthat would bump them out of first place. The United States entered the war in1941, and Americans moved across North Africa and thereby taking control of theMediterranean. In 1943, American, British, and Free French forces invaded Italy. Finally in 1945 the Soviet Union was brought down by a devastating defeat thatkilling millions in both sides. Europe itself was impoverished and in ruins,ironically, a victim of its own political vices and powers. It was clear thatEuropean Dominance was finished and that the U.S. would define the fate of theEuropean world. In my opinion Europe got what it deserved, but I dont believe that so manydeaths and so much destruction was necessary. Europe was a world leader withmany political and economic advantages to be shared. I believe Hitler could havebeen defeated without the involvement of so many countries. He was only one manmade of flesh and blood like the millions of people killed in the war. I dothink that some conflict is necessary, but it should never be taken to theextent of mass destruction. In American views the war might have overall seemedpositive being that we appeared on top after the dust settled, but I believethat the United States would have established themselves as dominant in theyears ahead anyway. In conclusion I have briefly summarized the events of the Unites States thatlead up to the fall of Europe. I have discovered through some thoughtfulanalysis of the war as a whole that, maybe, war is necessary to move alonghistory and events in political power. Although I strongly disagree with war andits effects, I am somewhat persuaded to take a look at it from a military pointof view. I conclude with a quote I know not with what weapons WWIII will befought, but WWIV will be fought with sticks and stones,-anonymous-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-
Saturday, April 18, 2020
Chinua Achebe is a novelist specializing in African literature, and this essay deals with the themes regarding colonialism in one of his many novels. In particular, the Igbo people in Chinua AchebeÃ¢â¬â¢s Things Fall Apart have their beliefs undermined by the British. As such, their ideals are viewed as savage and uncivilized, which caused a divide among the Igbo people. A useful theory to analyze the theme of a changing society is the post-colonial theory, which deals with the abnormal alterations that a society experiences because of an outside source, also called a Ã¢â¬Ëcolonial powerÃ¢â¬â¢. Post-colonial literary criticism is a useful theoretical tool to analyze the fall of indigenous society as depicted in Chinua AchebeÃ¢â¬â¢s Things Fall Apart. In particular, the theoretical concepts of the process of colonization from the perspective of the colonized, the psychological impact colonization has on the Igbo people, and the Indigenous resistance to colonization are relevant to the analysis of the fall of indigenous society in AchebeÃ¢â¬â¢s seminal novel. We will write a custom essay sample on Post-Colonial View on Things Fall Apart or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page To begin, colonization refers to the act of establishing colonies. This is mainly done to expand the territory of a certain nation, increase their own resource supply, and find new resources in the land being conquered. Colonization may have a positive effect on the colonizer, but the process of colonization typically affects the indigenous population negatively. Colonization causes change, which usually takes the form of whatever the colonizer believes to be correct without considering the ideas of the indigenous people who are in some cases treated like livestock. The greater the difference between the colonizer and the colonized, the greater the change that occurs from the perspective of the colonized. Once a society has been completely altered, the indigenous people not only begin to experience changes to their lifestyle, but also a change in the way they view the world. The novel Things Fall Apart describes the Igbo society before and after the British arrives. The first part of the novel deals with the tribal lifestyle of the Igbo people, which is the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s way of showing the culture of the Igbo people from their own perspective. The Igbo people have been long time practitioners of their faith, with the next generation following the footsteps of their forefathers. Their culture and view of the world remains unchanged until the British arrive. During OkonkwoÃ¢â¬â¢s seven year exile from Umuofia, not only does his own village begin to change, but the neighboring villages appear to be changing as well. Due to the technological advancements occurring in Europe, the Igbo people are helpless against the British missionaries who arrive, as explained by the quotation, Ã¢â¬Å"Have you heard, asked Obierika, Ã¢â¬Ëthat Abame is no more? Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ËAbame has been wiped out,Ã¢â¬â¢ said Obierika (119). Ã¢â¬ The quotation reveals that the Igbo people are beginning to realize that they must either adapt and accept the foreigners or risk becoming completely annihilated similar to their fellow tribesmen from the village of Abame. It is evident that the goal of the colonizer is to bring change to the nation being o ccupied, but these changes often bring chaos to the indigenous peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s way of life, which in turn can alter the way their society functions. Secondly, the mentality of the colonizer and the colonized differ significantly. While the colonizer believes that he is bringing civilization to a society in which he deems Ã¢â¬Å"barbaricÃ¢â¬ , the indigenous people view the colonizers as a threat to their lifestyle and, as such, often look down on the beliefs of the foreigner. After living a certain lifestyle for an extended period of time, a sudden change in lifestyle abnormally envelops not only a society as a whole, but the individuals who live in that society. The psychological state of the indigenous people worsens due to the forced ideas of the colonizers mixing with their own, which can cause a rift in their thinking. A decision has to be made eventually; however, the colonizer typically tries his hardest to prevent them from making what he believes is the Ã¢â¬Å"wrongÃ¢â¬ decision. Although the colonizer appears to be helping the indigenous people, his true intentions are all but innocent. Due to their technological disadvantages, the colonizers have an advantage over the indigenous people, causing the previous existing people to feel undermined. Even after the colonizers eave, the colonized people continue to bear the scars left behind by the colonizers, as stated by Hayes who argues that, Ã¢â¬Å"Post Colonial Theory recognizes the trauma resulting from the alienation of indigenous people from their own land, even after achieving independenceÃ¢â¬ (Hayes). Colonization leaves behind permanent psychological damage, even long after independence has been obtained. Moreover, the psychological impact is also depicted in Things Fall Apart. When the missionaries from Britain arrive in Nigeria, the Igbo people are amused at first when they first hand witness a Ã¢â¬Å"white manÃ¢â¬ . However, the one of the spiritual leaders in the Igbo clan who is known as the Oracle warns the people that Ã¢â¬Å"the strange man would break their clan and spread destruction among them (120). Ã¢â¬ This warning foreshadows the events that follow, and the Igbo people begin to feel inferior to the British colonizers after becoming aware of their destructive capabilities which were mainly due to their technological advancements. The missionaries who arrive also spread Christianity to the people. Those with power in Igbo society are not associated with any of the early converts. However, the Ã¢â¬Å"osuÃ¢â¬ or outcasts quickly join the new religion because the culture practiced by the Igbo do not accept them, and they are therefore easily swayed by the words of the foreigners. Although Okonkwo is a man of power in Igbo society, his son Nwoye is fascinated by the preaching of the missionaries. Eventually, Nwoye decides to cut his ties with his father as evident in the following exchange, Ã¢â¬Å"How is your father? Obierika asked, not knowing what else to say. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know. He is not my father, said Nwoye unhappily (124). Colonization has impacted the Igbo people negatively and their original society has begun to diminish, starting in the second part of the novel Things Fall Apart. Finally, although colonization may have psychologically destabilized the indigenous way of thinking, there is often a handful of individuals who firmly hold onto their beliefs regardless of the situation. It is those people who typically want to restore their nation to the state that it was before being colonized. Due to their passionate desire to bring their nation back to its former glory, resistance against the oppressors is their way to show their dedication. Unfortunately, many forms of resistance typically fail due to various reasons, with some being more preventable than others. One such reason could be that violence plays a large role in fighting against oppressors, which eventually leads to either success to the indigenous people should they succeed, or harsh punishment if they fail. The risk factor involved in this is one that shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be viewed at lightly and thus the majority of the colonized people do not actively engage in resistance. As a result, resistance doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t happen as often as it is planned due to the risk involved. Furthermore, the indigenous people in Things Fall Apart attempt to resist the British both before and after they make their colonial presence in Nigeria. Prior to the arrival of the British missionaries, a lone man riding what the Igbo people called an Ã¢â¬Å"iron horseÃ¢â¬ appears. Due to his strange appearance, the people in the clan decide to kill the man, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ and they killed the white man and tied his iron horse to their sacred tree because it looked as if it would run away to call to manÃ¢â¬â¢s friendsÃ¢â¬ (120). Soon after, more British people begin to settle in Nigeria and preach their religion to the Igbo people. This event causes the British to establish a colonial presence in Nigeria. At the end of the novel, OkonkwoÃ¢â¬â¢s rage gives him an incentive to start a revolution by calling his people to the market place. OkonkwoÃ¢â¬â¢s goal is to persuade his people to start a war against the British, firmly believing that his people will follow him to fight the oppressors. After a messenger arrives, Okonkwo decides to initiate the fight, and successfully draws Ã¢â¬Å"first bloodÃ¢â¬ . As Achebe writes, Ã¢â¬Å"That man was one of the greatest men in Umuofia. You drove him to kill himself; and now he will be buried like a dogÃ¢â¬ (178-179). This quotation describes OkonkwoÃ¢â¬â¢s disappointment after realizing that his fellow clansmen have changed, losing their sense of patriotism along the way. In conclusion, the points above illustrate the fall of indigenous society in Chinua AchebeÃ¢â¬â¢s Things Fall Apart using post-colonial literary criticism. Colonialism is typically viewed as an event of the past. However, although signs of colonialism are not as evident in the modern world, the after effects of a previously colonized nation continue to exist. For instance, the Tutsi and Hutu tribes from Rwanda were brought closer together because of the European colonizers. Prior to their arrival, the two tribes could be considered two different, rival nations with a different set of rules and culture. The political devastation caused by the Europeans due to their colonial presence in Africa, Ã¢â¬Å"also involved ethnic tension and violence due to colonialism exists because of poorly drawn international boundariesÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Effects of European Colonialism in AfricaÃ¢â¬ ). However, the Europeans had little concern for the rivalry between the two tribes and so Rwanda was founded. Unfortunately, this caused a massive genocide in 1994, which killed approximately one million people. Thus, the act of colonialism has always benefitted the colonizer, and the indigenous people are left with the option to either adapt or risk elimination, which is evident even after independence has been achieved as proven using Chinua AchebeÃ¢â¬â¢s Things Fall Apart as an example. Work Cited Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. 1958. Toronto: Alfred A. Knopf, 1992. Print. Effects of European Colonialism in Africa. Ã Yahoo! Contributor Network. N. p. , n. d. Web. 21 Mar. 2013. Hayes, David. Class Lecture. Post Colonial Literary Theory. Westview Centennial Secondary School, Toronto, ON. 14 Feb 2013.
Saturday, March 14, 2020
Sample Research Paper on War Attempting to evaluate the origins of World War One is both a complex and contentious issue, highly debated amongst historians with discussion centering on war guilt and the main contributing factors. Amongst the most topical problems in this area are the extent of Germanic blame concerning the war guilt dispute, and also the degree of blame that can be placed on the Alliance System in creating a warm climate. The view that the Alliance System was the key element of the war climate can be supported by the argument that it is what caused the war to transform from an isolated incident to a global war. Whereas, this can be defended by the view that the whole tension of the European powers before the 1914 outbreak can be attributed to all elements of the environment equally. When analyzing which nation was the main aggressor of war, Germany, according to many historians deserves to shoulder much of the blame. Contrary to this, the Revisionist school of thinking does not see Germanys pre- war actions as offensive but rather defensive. This school of thought shares the blame equally amongst the powers when considering some of the factors on the pre 1914 Germany. The joining of these two arguments shows the complexity of the origins of the war to end all wars, and show that there is validity in many of the viewpoints when considering the arguments and the bias that each historian is inevitably subject to. Of all of the components within the pre-war environment, the Alliance System is the element that determined the creation of a global war and additionally was a factor in generating suspicion between the powers during the lead up to the war. By the outbreak of war in August 1914, Europe and through imperialism much of the world, was divided into two sharply opposed and hostile armored camps, due to the Alliance System. The alliances were comprised of France, Britain, and Russia on the one side under the Triple Entente agreement (1907). The opposing force was the Triple Alliance (1882), which included Germany, Austro-Hungary, and Italy. The alliances held the fundamental purpose of mutual military assistance in time of attack or defense. Additionally, they acted as the balance upon which power was rested, so each Alliance was counteracted by an equal and opposite force. This system is what ensured that as war broke out, it spread rapidly due to alliance obligations engaging other nations and their empires in the first local conflict. This view is expressed by Paul Kennedy when saying, These coalitions mean that even if one belligerent was heavily defeated in a campaign or saw that its resources were inadequate to sustain further conflict; it was encouraged to stay in the war by hope and promise of aid from its allies. The alliance system itself virtually guaranteed that the war would not swiftly be decided The words of Paul Kennedy show assuredly that the comparatively insignificant assassination of Austrian heir, Franz Ferdinand in the Balkans, the crisis would not have escalated to the death of ten million soldiers without all the nations being dragged down the vortex of war due to allied responsibilities. The significant role of the Alliance System and its repercussions on the war to end all wars is demonstrated in this argument, but tends to exclude evidence supporting other causes of war. The Alliance System had a bearing impact on the magnitude of the Great War but does not account for the many other contributing elements that created the tensions between the European Great Powers during the early twentieth century. The war climate also undoubtedly involved militarism, nationalism, and imperialism. The belief that each nation should build up to it army, navy and military techniques to the point that would be intimidating to its opposition, can be considered as what turned Europe into a metaphoric powder keg, waiting for the lethal catalyst. Additionally, the aggressive colonial interests of each Great Power fuelled the war climate, particularly the Kaiser who sought colonies as a key part of his foreign policy. However, this argument is also countered by the France and Britain alliance, as they were strong colonial enemies. Finally, the view that nationalism had a significant impact on the climate which mounted into the Great War is supported by the historian Gordon Greenwood, when he wrote in 1973, The underlying reason for the struggle may be found in.. each nation acting in accordance with what appeared to be at the time for its rulers to be its own best interests. This interprets the value of nationalism as a provocative element in the origins of World War One, with each nation standing to defend the interests of that nation aggressively and to prove the strength which their respective nations were capable of. Thus the evaluation of the pre1914 war climate can be considered with Alliance System in the fore frontal position as the main cause, but the historical analysis can also logically place any one of the other elements of the war climate as the main basis for war. The climate of the Great War was merely the stage set for the instigation, for which the argument of war guilt is exhaustive and multifaceted. Combining the notoriously aggressive nature of the German people with the confrontational and suspicious nature of Kaiser Wilhelm IIs foreign policy, many historians view the tensions and instigation of World War One as largely responsible of Germany. The unification of Germany holds vital evidence to the trademark German aggression, referred to by many historians. In 1848 the democratic Frankfurt Assembly failed to unify Germany. Where diplomacy fell short, the policies of Bismarck are expressed in 1871, when he said, not by speeches and majority votes are the great questions of the day answered that was the mistake of 1848 but by blood and iron ( Cowie, H.R. 1987 page 93) Bismarcks ambitions were successful in 1871, when after three short wars; his unification plan was founded, while amongst historians opinions formed on the impact this event had on the psyche of the German people. About the war climate, L.C.B. Seaman voices this argument by saying the historical traditions of the Reich knew no principle other than that of the exercise of power for its sake the Germans stampeded into war, the mindless and purposeless victims of their history. Although this view was written eight decades after the conclusion of the war and in England, a nation which opposed Germany at war, this evidently illustrates the belief that Germany was actively seeking a fight. Furthermore, a prime example of Germanys aggressive actions was the creation of a navy which rivaled the traditional supremacy of the British Navy and is considered the catalyst which drew Britain out of splendid isolation. As expressed by A.J. P. Taylor, The great navy had no defensive purpose. For that, Germany would have needed coastal forts and vessels, which were not built. The navy was therefore purely a weapon of offensive. The newly formed navy was seen by both the British at the time and historians in retrospect, as an aggressive tactic to draw the world towards war; a war which Germany believed would entail economic and colonial benefits. The extent of German war guilt is hence evaluated from this perspective that German guilt was due to the aggression of the already existing tensions of the war climate. The claim that Germany was the most prominent aggressor of the Great War is agreed to be valid based on the presented facts, but Germany could, to the contrary, be perceived in an entirely different light to show its pre-1914 actions as defensive. The hindsight of historian can be viewed as distorted in the time following 1919, directly due to the signing of the Treaty of Versailles, within which Germany was forced to confess to sole war guilt. As expressed by Sidney Bradshaw Fay in 1928, One must abandon the dictum of the Versailles Treaty that Germany and her allies were solely responsible. It was a dictum exacted by victors from vanquished, under the influence of blindness, ignorance, hatred, and the propagandist misconceptions to which war had given rise. This very importantly reminds us that the War Guilt Clause was a punishment on a nation that lost a war, not a valid and educated analysis of historical events. It was upon this basis that in the 1920s, many historians revised the extent of German War guilt, and concluded that it was far less than ever before conceived. This way of thinking, in consequence, became known as the revisionist school. From the time of the creation of the Germanic States in 1871, it had to defend its borders against the surrounding hostile states of Russia and France. Germany very rapidly an aggressively became a Great Power in Europe, but this can be seen as a method for German survival or an action en route to war. The Australian historian, Moses takes an interesting stance on the issue by stating, The Reich was encircled by a group of envious, vengeful and barbaric powers. The Reich had only wished to preserve her ally, Austro-Hungary, from collapse. Germany had thus gone to war for the noblest of motiv es. This is quintessential to the revisionist thought, and presents a strong opposing argument to the belief in German war guilt, and is logically supported. While the full details of this historian were unavailable, the fact that he is Australian and thus not essentially biased to the German view gives the argument a strong authority. The revisionist school of thought is shown to encompass what evidence is seen to be omitted when allocating sole blame on Germany, and thus a strong counter-argument is formulated on this basis. The simplicity of blaming one nation or one contributing factor is undermined when evaluating the true complexity of the Great Wars tensions and instigation. When analyzing the role of the alliance on the war, it can undoubtedly be observed as the transformer from a localized to global conflict. The weather this stands as the main reason for war is queried when analyzing the implications of other factors, these specifically being militarism, nationalism, and imperialism. Similarly, when endeavoring to analyze Germanys role in the war, Fritz Fishers view of German aggression is valid to his presentation of evidence. Contrary to this, the elements which were characterized as aggressive can be seen as defensive actions when considering Germany being surrounded by unfriendly states. The melding of these arguments, show the intricate workings of the pre-war period, and neither the climate can be solely defined by the Alliance System, nor can the instigator be blamed solely on Germany, whe n considering all views and beliefs being subject to the inevitable prejudice of all historians. Despite the controversial nature of Germanys war guilt, it can be said assuredly the Treaty of Versailles is what oppressed Germany during the interwar period and shaped a nation susceptible to the regime of Hitler.
Thursday, February 27, 2020
Effect of Gradient on the Abundance of Ranunculus Repens - Coursework Example First action to betaken is to identify the cause of the disease. This made me to study on the causes of the disease and what I found was that is caused by a plant called Ranunculus repens. This concerned me and I had to do a project on this plant. This is because Ranunculus repens have both the negative and positive effects on the environment. One of the reasons that I chose to do a project on Ranunculus repens is because of its unique property that can be used to treat musculoskeletal disorders. According to PFAF, chewing leaves of this plant will help in healing muscular pain. Therefore, my research can help us to understand the optimum conditions required for Ranunculus repens to grow so that higher yields of the plant can be obtained for its medicinal usage. The other reason for choosing Ranunculus repens as a project is that it is thought to be poisonous for humans and animals if eaten fresh and I think this is something that we as humans should be aware of especially agricultur alists. According to Garden Organic Ranunculus repens Ã¢â¬Å"can cause diarrhea in sheep and cattle. Ranunculus repens depletes potassium in soil making it inadequate for other plants. Therefore this particular plant is not suitable for grazing, especially cattle. My project can provide useful material for farmers about the plant e.g. where they mostly occur. Based on my project Farmers may decide not to graze their animals on a place where Ranunculus repens are most common in order to obtain higher meat yields. The farmers may also decide to manage their grassland to minimize the growth of Ranunculus repens to avoid its noxious effect. An alternative reason for choosing this plant involves its unique and attractive colour and structure. Ã¢â¬Å"It is essential to preserve our remaining natural heritage for future generations. Wildlife and geological features are under pressure from development, pollution, climate change and unsustainable land management. Therefore it is useful to st udy the important biological properties of the plants in order to maintain them e.g. by knowing their niche will help us to provide the best conditions possible for Ranunculus repens to survive and develop. Scientific background Ranunculus repens has many features that makes that makes it survive in its habitats. It grows well in wet environments as compared to its growth in dry conditions. Ranunculus repens competes for light, moisture and nutrients with other plants. This pressure has made it to have some adaptations to this environment. They are submerged in water making them lose diffusion pathways of getting oxygen between their roots and the atmosphere. This made roots to have elongated shoots that help them get oxygen from the atmosphere. Both leaves and the shoots come grow outward to the water surfaces to help the plant get oxygen from the air. Bodies of Ranunculus repens are submerged in water. They strive to get oxygen, light and nutrients from the environment. They get l ight through their leaves that are growing to the water surfaces. This helps them to absorb light from the atmosphere and make their food through photosynthesis. The leaves also help them get oxygen from the environment. All these features have made wet conditions suitable for their survival. Hypothesis of this research is to identify the effects of land gradient on the growth of Ranunculus repens. Null Hypothesis - There will be no difference in the abundance of Ranunculus rep
Monday, February 10, 2020
Instructions for Term Paper - Assignment Example The bill was only a show of political fantasy. In fact, the bill was ironical since the abortion rates have dropped by 13 percent for the last decade. If their intentions were to reduce abortion, they should instead campaign for the increase of birth control pills. An exception to the bill would be for abortions that result from rape pregnancies. In his conclusion, the author states there are more to attend to than dwell on useless politics. Throughout the article, the author uses both facts and opinions. He, for example, makes an opinion when he says the Republican members are making up wars they cannot win. He emphasizes that the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s growth will remain stagnant until when the GOP leaders and ideologues will upgrade their thinking and understanding. Additionally, he points out that the bill was nothing more than an act of fantasy. The author also uses facts in the article. According to the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), he says the abortion rate reduced by 13 percent between 2002 and 2011. In an effort to substantiate the reduction in abortions, he states that there have been few instances of unwanted pregnancies (Robinson). The CDC also reports that only about 1.4 percent abortions are carried out after 20 weeks. As he states, it is also a fact that the bill would have several obstacles before becoming law. The Republicans would need a considerable backup from the Democrats, and the presi dent would also have to veto the measure (Robinson). The author is more of a libertarian than a conservative. He insists that the nation is in economic recovery and everyone needs to address its infrastructure and competitiveness. He says that the nation faces several challenges such as global warming and terrorism that the government must take actions to avert. The authorÃ¢â¬â¢s sentiments make him seem inclined to the Democrats camp. He says the bill was an act of